I had a WordPress glitch and accidentally posted this draft of a post, sorry about that! If you want the real post you can find it here it covers:
Process Colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black)
Specifying process colors
Applying cmyk Color to Type
Choosing a Color Library
Specifying Pantone Solid Color
Specifying a Spot Varnish or uv
Final Page Size
Meanwhile, the opportunity to preorder my book, Designing for Print is now! When I started the Kickstarter I was thinking the retail price of the book would be $85.00. But as things are progressing I am thinking the retail price will need to be close to $100 for me to cover my costs so now is definitely the time to get it for $50! Don’t wait, seriously, you will want to have this on your desk while you are designing or getting estimates. Design departments, get one copy for each team member and get everyone on the same page! Printers, buy them as gifts for your customers! Pre-Order Now by clicking here
One of the things designers worry about the most is being disappointed with how a print project turns out. Seeing their project print in the “wrong” colors or not as sharp as it looked on the screen are common issues but there are also others. Many of these issues are surprisingly easy to manage. The good news is that only part of this management is on the designer’s end, some of it is on the printer’s end and out of the designer’s hands. Because printing problems can be expensive, or very expensive to fix (as in redo the entire job ?), there is usually some finger pointing going on when a job goes south. If a designer messes up on their part – they are responsible for paying to reprint the job and I know firsthand, it’s a bitter pill to swallow.
I’ve put together a list of the things you, the designer, controls and those which the printer controls. In this post, I will address the designer’s responsibility. In part two I will address the printer’s responsibility!
Things the designer Controls
Specify the Right Paper
The most important decision you can make is choosing the right paper for your project. No matter what you do on the prepress side to enhance image quality if you are printing a finely detailed image on the wrong paper, the details are going to be lost. Paper choice significantly affects reproduction quality.
Color Manage Your Devices/Workspace
Most designers who are disappointed by color are using a proofing workflow that is not calibrated, ie: their monitor and desktop printer. There’s a reason why the proofing printers that printer’s buy cost five figures (and the color management RIP can cost six figures!), they are way better than your desktop printer. It could be that your printer happened to predict how a job printed in January when you used photo paper and an OEM ink set, trust me, you got lucky. But in June when you are using copy paper with non-OEM ink the whole picture could change (picture, pun, LOL). Either manage your color at your studio/office or rely on supplied proofs at every step of the process. It’s that simple.
Don’t put off color management thinking you can wait until you see the first set of final proofs from your printer. This can lead to a major color rework during the final hour, delaying the job delivery, and that is not good for you or your client.
There are some really quick and easy ways to calibrate your monitor so you can check color: Google “how to calibrate my monitor,” follow the instructions, and take your monitor’s age into account; as monitors age, they become less accurate.
Get your print provider’s ICC profile, (a standardized data set that describes the color space of an input or output device,)
and apply it to your monitor and desktop printer. If your desktop printer cannot load an ICC profile, ask your print shop for work-around help or hire an outside firm. Sometimes spending $100 is the best thing you can possibly do.
Take a rhem lighting indicator (RHEM indicator) with you when you show proofs to a client. There’s one in the back
of the Pantone Color Bridge set. If your proofs look odd or different in your client’s office, it might be the light.
Where are you looking at your proofs? In the parking lot? In the kitchen? In a room with purple walls? Try to check
proofs in a color-neutral environment; a color booth is best. Specify color while you are in the booth too.
Install 5000k fluorescent lights and daylight incandescents in your workspace.
Do not convert your files to CMYK unless your printer specifically asks you to. Chances are the printer is going to
want to handle that conversion, especially if your files are printing on a digital press.
If you are printing on colored paper, proof on colored paper. If you can’t proof on colored paper, change the “paper” color in InDesign to approximate your paper color. It will not reflect how transparent inks appear on colored paper, but it’s a step in the right direction.
Rhem indicators show you if your lighting is correct. You canpurchase them on a card or a pack of stickers to place on proofsand there is currently one in the back of the Pantone Bridge set.In correct lighting, both halves of the rectangle are identical.Here it is shown in incorrect lighting.
Specify Color Precisely
Using your monitor to select color is a sketchy proposition. You can specify color precisely if you use printed color guides to select your colors. I highly recommend the Pantone Bridge Selector, which gives you Spot, RGB, and CMYK equivalents for each color. When working on identity systems, it is an invaluable tool. You can immediately see how out-of-gamut some Pantone greens and reds are when rendered in CMYK. And for the RGB equivalent enter the values shown in Adobe Photoshop and see how that compares (knowing the browser, monitor and hardware will serve it up differently in each case).
Use the Correct Resolution
Resolution is worth mentioning because it causes so many problems in the prepress department. Any image you want to print must be a minimum of 300 dpi at 100% of its actual size. If you pull an image from a website, and it is 4 in. x 4 in. and 72 dpi (the typical web resolution), when you place it in your page layout, it must be sized to 24% of its original size or 0.96 in. x .96 in. in order to be at the correct resolution for printing. (Web designers take note!)
There is absolutely no way to take a low-resolution image and make it look like a high-resolution image. Interpolating a file to a higher resolution makes the image look like an image that was interpolated up to a higher resolution to improve its appearance. One low-resolution image can make collateral look unprofessional. Make sure all the images you provide are the correct resolution for their output size.
The same photo shown in three different light sources, from left: store light, daylight, and home light. Consider the challenges inherent in designing packaging where the product will be viewed in several lighting environments. (Photo courtesy gti Graphictechnology Inc.)
Use Correct File Formats
Each software program creates a native file format that it “gets along with” best. For Adobe Photoshop, that would be bit-mapped files like tiff, jpg, and png. For Adobe Illustrator, it is eps files. Adobe InDesign is a composition program that can accept nearly any file type for inclusion into a document that will be printed or published to the web.
Some file formats work well for print, and some work best for the web. Here are some common file types and their best uses:
• Tiff for high-resolution photographs and scanned graphics
• eps for infinite scalability
• Pdf for high-resolution printing when properly saved with embedded fonts and bleeds, etc.
• Jpg for many compression options and fast loading
• Png for more image depth. The trade-off is its large file size, no CMYK, RGB only.
• Gif limited color (256 only) but very fast loading
Don’t use image compression unless you absolutely have to. Every time an image is compressed (when it is saved) and uncompressed (when it is opened), it rewrites the data in the file and leaves little artifacts/noise in the image. Compression is left over from the days when a 44mb (yes, that’s MB, not GB or TB) Syquest drive cost $200. Nowadays, storage is cheap. Compression works well for the web, but it isn’t necessary for anything else. For example, Tiff files and images are not compressed. Jpeg files and images are.
I hope this helps you to feel super confident the next time you send a job to your printer! Stay tuned for part two – What Your Printer Controls!
Do you have a question about this topic or would you like me to further explain something? Do you have a request for a topic for me to cover or elaborate on? I’d love to know, comment or email me at marina @ designingforprint.com
Pudding is pretty thick and murky… the reasons for proofs and types of proofs can seem murky as well. You need proofs, as in you really need proofs. One of the most important things to understand is what type of proof you will need for any given project. We will discuss the different types of proofs and what to look for when proofing print and graphic elements.
How Proofs are Made
A little background on how proofs are made will help you know what types of proofs you need. Proofs are printed on large-format inkjet devices. At the best printers, these devices are calibrated to predict how the job will print. This is an important concept. The proof is not necessarily showing you the most accurate representation of your InDesign file… it is predicting how your file will look when printed on a specific press and paper. Your file whether it is on a Mac or PC is going to be output (interpreted) by a device. That device can be someone’s laptop running a browser if it is a digital project or a printed billboard/package/brochure/card that was printed and therefore interpreted by a RIP. Sometimes, but not always, a proof can be a dot-for-dot proof of your ripped file, but that’s a convo for later.
Because the large-format device is calibrated for the paper it uses, you cannot choose the paper you want for a proof. You have to accept the paper for which the device is calibrated. If you want a proof on the actual paper the job will print on, you will sacrifice color correctness and resolution and it just generally will not work, unless the job is printing digitally.
Types of Proofs
Blueline (brown line) A blueline proof is a low to medium resolution proof in color or black and white. This proof is trimmed, folded, and printed from the final file from which the plates will be made. Blueline and brown-line are terms that belong to a technology that became obsolete in the 1990s, but the terms are still in use. Other equivalent terms are: plotter, folding Epson, folded color digital proof, digital plotter or just plain digital proof.
Contract A contract proof is the “best” proof for resolution and color. In some, but not all, cases, it is a dot–for–dot proof, which means you will get what you see right down to the halftone dots. This proof is on high-resolution paper. If your project involves multiple pages, ask for your proof in reader’s spreads. Otherwise, you may receive printer’s spreads (which is easier for the printer to do), and it could take a ton of extra time to compare printer’s spreads to an earlier proof in reader’s spreads.
Soft Proof A soft proof is a proof viewed on a monitor. Not to be used for color. A PDF is a type of soft proof.
Die Strike A die strike is a sample impression made by a foil or embossing die on the specified paper. This procedure may be done while another job is running, so whatever foil is “on press” may be used. Your printer should supply paper so that the die strike is on the paper on which the job will run. If you also want to see your foil on your paper, specify that so your printer can plan accordingly. That is a press proof and an additional charge.
Press Proof The actual job on the paper with all finishing techniques applied for a limited quantity.
Drawdown A drawdown is a proof of specified spot ink on the actual paper that will be used for the job.
One-off A one-off is a proof of a job that will be digitally printed. Because it is being digitally printed it will be on the press and paper specified. In the case of a large format project, the one-off may be reduced in size or only a critical section may be proofed.
Looking at Proofs
Reviewing a Contract Color Proof
You are going to need a Sharpie®, preferably red, or a similar permanent marker to make your notes and corrections on the proof. Gloss proofing paper is not receptive to many inks, but a Sharpie works very well.
• What are your viewing conditions? Is your lighting color correct? Use the lighting evaluation tool in your Pantone Color Bridge fan deck, if you have one or order a set of Pantone lighting indicator stickers. The photo below shows a RHEM indicator.
This is a RHEM indicator showing that the light in which it is being viewed is not color correct.
When the lighting is correct both halves of the rectangle look the same.
• Are you at a viewing booth? Should you be? A viewing booth or viewing area is a color-correct environment. If you do not have the proper environment, go to your printer and use his.
• Look closely at every piece of art whether it is a photograph, drawing, or logo.
• Is the color off or correct?
• Is the cropping correct?
• Is the logo the correct version and/or usage?
• Does the image look muddy or fuzzy?
• Does part of the image look dark or muddy?
• Does anything need retouching?
• Was requested retouching performed?
• Are any moirés visible? (this applies only if checking a contract proof that is dot-for-dot)
We strongly recommend you proof hard copies. Here is what you want to check on each page:
• Is text flowing correctly from column to column and page to page? Scan the last few words in each column or page, and the beginning of the next column or page to make sure the flow is correct.
• Was the document spell-checked?
• Are headlines complete without missing copy?
• Is the document the correct size?
• Are the margins as specified? Top? Bottom? Outer? Inner? Left? Right? Are the margins consistent?
• Are the folios correct? Does the numbering start on a right-hand page?
• Are there any hyphens or widows that need to be corrected?
• Are columns correct and consistent, justified, or ragged?
• Are elements that bleed cropped correctly?
• Did the binding hide or cut off anything?
• Is the backup, front-to-back orientation, correct? Triple-check this for two-sided postcards, business cards, or any item that changes reader/viewer orientation from front to back, outside to inside. See the two videos below for examples of head-to-foot and head-to-head orientations.
This is what head-to-foot orientation looks like:
This is what head-to-head orientation looks like:
Proofing a Paper Dummy
• Is the size correct?
• Is it the right paper(s)?
• Is the color correct?
• Is the weight(s) of the paper correct?
• Is the paper’s finish correct?
• Are the hash marks correct on the proof/dummy?
• Do you have drawdowns? Are they correct?
Proofing a PDF
• If you are reviewing a PDF that was emailed to you or that you downloaded, print it out to size with bleeds and crop marks. Trim it, score it, fold it, and perforate it if necessary. (Having done all this, you will wish you had ordered a hard copy proof from your printer.) If it is a postcard and prints two sides, glue, tape, or staple it together. Is it head-to-head? Head-to-foot? Is the head-to-foot or head-to-head orientation in writing on the purchase order or on the estimate?
• If you receive a hard copy proof, check it for trim, scoring, folding, color, imposition, backup, etc. Note that you should not be checking for spelling at this stage.
• I do not recommend reviewing pdf proofs on a smartphone. I recently saw a pdf that looked different on two different phones. One showed the error, a key-line around a graphic, and the other did not show it at all. Needless to say, the job printed with the key-line because the client reviewed and okay-ed the proof from his phone.
• Check the color carefully. Most proofing systems can now proof CMYK color very accurately. If the project is printing with a Pantone spot color, look at a chip or a drawdown and confirm it is the color you want. If the project is printing Hexachrome, HiFi or with touch plates, make sure you are at the press check.
• If you are proofing via an online system, print the proof out yourself so that you will have a hard copy in your hands while you are looking at the job on screen.
PHEW. That seems like a lot of stuff. If you have a question about proofing or would you like me to further explain something, I’d love to know, comment or email me at marina @ designingforprint.com. Do you have a request for a topic for me to cover or elaborate on? Let me know! Really!